Tag Archives: Cubism

Pablo Picasso – Oh, Those Guitars!

27 Jan

Everyone wants to understand art. Why not try to understand the song of a bird? Why does one love the night, flowers, everything around one, without trying to understand them? But in the case of a painting people have to understand. If only they would realize above all that an artist works of necessity, that he himself is only a trifling bit of the world, and that no more importance should be attached to him than to plenty of other things which please us in the world, though we can’t explain them. People who try to explain pictures are usually barking up the wrong tree.‘ (Pablo Picasso)*

1921-pablo-picasso-still-life-with-guitar-1921Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Guitar, 1921

I’m not a particular fan of Picasso, but earlier this month I found myself absolutely besotted by his collages and guitars. Oh, those guitars! I was so inspired by them that I started making collages myself, with guitars and cut-out pieces of newspapers. Despite their seeming simplicity, I feel a strong creative energy from them and that’s why I like them.

Picasso’s art can be clearly divided into periods, some by colours he used, others by the specific motifs and themes he painted repeatedly: in his melancholic ‘blue phase’ he was interested in beggars, the homeless, prostitutes, drunk people, in his ‘rose period’ it was all about joy, carnivals and harlequins. Then, inspired by Cezanne’s theory that everything in nature and world around us can be divided into geometric objects, Picasso, along with Braque, delved into Analytical Cubism which resulted in rather confusing, dark and distorted paintings. Their alteration of reality is almost psychedelic, which is kind of cool. What followed is known as Synthetic Cubism or Crystal Cubism which followed the idea that a painter’s job is not to ‘copy’ world around him, but to ‘construct’, and so they did, discovering at the same time the power of collage as a technique. Instead of breaking an object into its essential pieces, they built objects using contrasting colours, pieces of newspapers, fragments of their own sketches. Picasso’s painting Guitar, Sheet Music, Glass made in autumn of 1912, is usually considered the first example of Synthetic Cubism. It’s so simple yet so striking. The background is actually a wallpaper, and then there’s a piece of blue paper, and a piece of black paper, all very simple, and then, out of nowhere, a piece of sheet music and a charcoal drawing of a glass made in the style of the previous Analitical Cubism. The most interesting of all, a cut out piece of newspaper with half a title showing ‘Le Jou’, shortened from ‘Le Journal’  meaning ‘Newspapers’. Picasso is playing a word game with us here, ‘le jou’ means ‘game’. Below that it says ‘Le Bataille s’est engage’ which means ‘The battle has begun’ alluding to the raging wars on Balkan, when Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro fought for the independence from the Ottoman Empire. However, this is usually interpreted not just as Picasso’s awareness of the political situation of Europe, but is seen as symbolic for the battle of Cubism and collage as new styles and methods in art.

I hate it when people say something like: ‘Oh, everyone could do that, what’s so revolutionary about it?’ My art teacher in grammar school had a good answer to these ignorant remarks, she said: ‘ Well, yes, everyone could cut out a piece of newspaper and glue it on paper, but the fact that no one did it before, that no artist dared to do it before, that’s what makes it avant-garde and revolutionary!’ This can well be applied to many more artists, like Matisse, Miro, Malevich, Mondrian, Rothko, even Pollock.

1912-pablo-picasso-guitar-sheet-music-glass-paris-autumn-1912-papers-and-newsprint-le-journal-18-november-1912-pasted-gouache-and-charcoal-on-paperPablo Picasso, Guitar, Sheet Music, Glass, Paris, autumn, 1912. Papers and newsprint (Le Journal, 18 November 1912) pasted, gouache and charcoal on paper

1921-pablo-picasso-musicians-with-masksPablo Picasso, Musicians with masks, 1921

1916-the-guitar-pablo-picasso-synthetic-cubismPablo Picasso, The Guitar, 1916, Synthetic Cubism

1924-pablo-picasso-mandolin-and-guitar-mandoline-et-guitarePablo Picasso, Mandolin and Guitar (Mandoline et guitare), 1924

Federico Lorca – Cordoba, Distant and Lonely

16 Dec

Warm earthy colours, soft silvery transitions, and hints of blue. A woman, a horse, and a vase. Broken fragments are tickling our imagination. The mood of this painting goes well with Lorca’s poem ‘The Horseman’s Song’, at least for me. Both artworks are pure avant-garde; Jean Metzinger was considered the forerunner of Cubism, and Lorca nurtured a style that combined modernistic tendencies in European poetry with tradition of his homeland Andalusia. In ‘The Horseman’s Song’, he repeats certain motifs – olives, horseman, Cordoba, Moon, wind and road – developing the mood of anxiety and mystery. Who is the horseman? And why won’t he see his beloved Cordoba again?The utter strangeness of this poem and its mood of desolation and death endlessly captivate me.

1911-12-jean-metzinger-1911-1912-la-femme-au-cheval-woman-with-a-horse-oil-on-canvasJean Metzinger, La Femme au Cheval (Woman with a horse), 1911-12, oil on canvas

The Horseman’s Song
‘Córdoba
Distant and lonely.

Black steed, big moon,
and olives in my saddlebag.
Although I know the roads
I will never reach Córdoba.

Across the plain, through the wind
Black steed, red moon.
Death is staring at me
from the towers of Córdoba.
Oh, how long the road is!
Oh, my valiant steed!
Oh, death awaits me,
before I reach Córdoba.

Córdoba.
Distant and lonely.’

There was a full moon (in Gemini) last two nights. If you go out for a walk, or just move your curtains, say hello to the moon, and think of Lorca this evening, the strange beauty of his poetry deserves it.

Comparison: Picasso and Kirchner

27 Nov

Who knew there’s a connection between Picasso and Kirchner? Even though their painting styles are rather different, on one occasion they did portray a similar subject – a subject of prostitutes, common for Kirchner, and also a theme of one of the most famous Picasso’s work – The Young Ladies of Avignon.

1913. Five Women in the Street by Ernst Ludwig KirchnerFive Women in the Street, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1913

These two paintings are executed in very different ways which is a result of the different art movements Kirchner and Picasso belonged to, but the subject that they portrayed so memorably is the same. Pablo Picasso’s painting The Young Ladies of Avignon is a good representation of the Cubist art movement which Picasso co-founded, whilst Ernst Ludwig Kirchner’s painting Five Women in the Street is painted in Expressionistic manner. However, both of the paintings show prostitutes, five of them on each painting. While Picasso painted their bodies in very natural pinkish tones, and shaped them quite sharply, following Cezanne’s theory of shapes (an idea that everything in nature can be parceled into geometrical shapes). If you take a close look, you’ll notice how torsos are shaped like triangles, and their breasts like circles and quadrilaterals. Also, it’s interesting to note the unusual perspective, typical for Cubism by the way; a perspective which shows women’s eyes and nose from different angles, as if the viewer was walking around the painting. On the other hand, Kirchner painted these ‘fallen women’ in a very gothic manner; elongated, with thin, fragile bodies wrapped in dark coats, their faces pale, sickly, resembling masks. While yellow colour in Picasso’s painted exceeds into warm and safe earthly, pinkish tones, in Kirchner’s painting yellow looks feeble, grim and apocalyptic.

Refusal of the traditional conception of beauty is evident in both paintings. If we remember the ways Rubens or Titian painted their voluptuous beauties, and compare it with these part angular, part mask-like body parts, and add the other details I numbered above, it becomes clear that these two paintings are pure avant-garde. Both Picasso and Kirchner’s women appear ugly and grotesque compared to more traditional artworks, but we have to be open-minded in order to appreciate these peculiar, off-beat beauties. It is also the atmosphere of these paintings that differs them; Picasso’s painting appears stable, almost frozen in time, while Kirchner portrayed the city’s dynamics, hastiness, feeling of anxiety, fear and hopelessness – Kirchner’s women are walking up and down the streets of pre-catastrophe Berlin.

1907. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon)[2] by the Spanish artist Pablo PicassoLes Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon) and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon), Pablo Picasso, 1907

Marc Chagall – Painting a Dream

9 Aug

‘All colours are the friends of their neighbors and the lovers of their opposites.’

1910s Blue Circus by Marc Chagall

Though he was born in a Jewish family in great Russian Empire, Marc Chagall experienced modernism’s Golden age in Paris. He moved to Paris in 1910. to develop his artistic style. When Chagall arrived in Paris, Cubism was the dominant art form and overall art scene was still greatly dominated by materialistic outlook of the 19th century. When he first arrived in Paris, Cubism was at its peak, but Chagall’s ideas were quite the opposite. Even his thoughts about art were the revers of what Cubists had in mind, Chagall considered art “emerging from the internal being outward, from the seen object to the psychic outpouring.”

His first days in Paris were far from being easy; he wandered lonely through Parisian boulevards, barely speaking French, thinking about what he had left behind. While he painted, Chagall daydreamed about the richness of Russian folklore, his Hasidic experiences, his family and Bella with whom he fell in love the moment he first saw her. However, Chagall’s dream of a big city; city of light, freedom and art, came true.

Chagall really enjoyed being in Paris, strolling around and just breathing Parisian air. He often visited Montmartre and Latin Quarter. Baal-Teshuva described Chagall’s feelings for Paris.

”Chagall was exhilarated, intoxicated, as he strolled through the streets and along the banks of the Seine. Everything about the French capital excited him: the shops, the smell of fresh bread in the morning, the markets with their fresh fruit and vegetables, the wide boulevards, the cafés and restaurants, and above all the Eiffel Tower.

Another completely new world that opened up for him was the kaleidoscope of colours and forms in the works of French artists. Chagall enthusiastically reviewed their many different tendencies, having to rethink his position as an artist and decide what creative avenue he wanted to pursue.”

1910s Marc Chagall 1

Artists Chagall admired at that time were Rembrandt, van Gogh, Renoir, Pissaro, Matisse, Gauguin, Courbet, Monet, Manet and Delacroix. Still, Chagall was constantly thinking about his home in Vitebsk as Paris at that time was a home to many other artists, dancers, poets and writers from Russian Empire. ‘My homeland exists only in my soul.’ he once said, as he painted the scenes he remembered from his childhood, incorporating both Jewish themes and Parisian landscapes. Throughout all of is life, the memories of his childhood and Russian folklore mingled with Jewish tradition haunted him and he painted the scenes he remembered in an unrealistic, dreamy, childlike and idealistic way.

Even though he experimented with different perspectives, his grand passion was for colour. He loved colours; using them, mixing them, observing their quality and behavior. “Colour is all. When colour is right, form is right. Colour is everything, colour is vibration like music; everything is vibration.” Very passionate about colours, Chagall painted in dreamy blues, vivid reds, mystic greens and cheerful yellows. His paintings that are mainly blue-coloured are the most appealing to me out of all; they remind me of a dream, all of Chagall’s paintings do. The characters on his paintings, the settings, the poses, wild mix of colours; mystic and tempting with childlike cheerfulness, dreamy atmosphere emerges from his paintings.

1910s 'L'acróbata' ~ Marc Chagall

“In our life there is a single colour, as on an artist palette which provides the meaning of life and art. It is the colour of love.”

1910s Marc Chagall - Bathsheba

“I have always painted pictures where human love floods my colours.”

1910s Marc Chagall 3

“I had only to open my bedroom window, and blue air, love, and flowers entered with her.”

1947. Marc Chagall, The Blue Fiddler

Marc Chagall remains the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century having contributed to the development of Modernism. In the 1950s Pablo Picasso made a remark which shows how important Chagall was and what sensation and joy he found in colours ‘When Matisse dies, Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is.’